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  • by: by Laxman, R. K
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  • ISBN-10: 0140299289
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  • Publosher: Penguin Books Australia
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  • Add date: 19.11.2016
  • Time add:19:23

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The Austro-Prussian war appears to us undoubtedly the result of the crafty conduct of Bismarck, and so on. The Napoleonic wars still seem to Best of Laxman: The Common Man Balances His Budget, though already questionably, to be the outcome of their heroes' will. But in the Crusades we already see an event occupying its definite place in history and without which we cannot imagine the modern history of Europe, though to the chroniclers of the Crusades that event appeared as merely due to the will of certain people.

In regard to the migration of the peoples it does not enter anyone's head today to suppose that the renovation of the European world depended on Attila's caprice.

The farther back in history the object of our observation lies, the more doubtful does the free will of those concerned in the event become and the more Best of Laxman: The Common Man Balances His Budget the law of inevitability.

The third consideration is the degree to which we apprehend that endless chain of causation inevitably demanded by reason, in which each phenomenon comprehended, and therefore man's every action, must have its definite place as a result of what has gone before and as a cause of what will follow.

The better we are acquainted with the physiological, psychological, and historical laws deduced by observation and by which man is controlled, and the more correctly we perceive the physiological, psychological, and historical causes of the action, and the simpler the action we are observing and the less complex the character and mind of the man in question, the more subject to inevitability and the less free do our actions and those of others appear. When we do not at all understand the cause of an action, whether a crime, a good action, or even one that is simply nonmoral, we ascribe a greater amount of freedom to it.

In Bewt case of a crime we most urgently demand the punishment Balnces such an act; in the case of a virtuous act we rate its merit most highly. In an indifferent case we recognize in it more individuality, originality, and independence. But if even one of the innumerable causes of the act is known to us we recognize a certain element of necessity and are less insistent on punishment for the crime, or the acknowledgment of the merit of the virtuous act, or the freedom of the apparently original action.

That a criminal was Cpmmon among male factors mitigates his fault in our eyes. The self-sacrifice of a father or mother, or self-sacrifice with the possibility of a reward, is more comprehensible than gratuitous self-sacrifice, and therefore seems less deserving of sympathy and less the result of free will. The founder of a sect or party, or an inventor, impresses us less when we know how or by what the way was prepared for his activity.

If we have a large range of examples, if our observation is constantly directed to seeking the correlation of cause and effect in people's actions, their actions appear to us more under compulsion and less free the more correctly we connect the effects with the causes. If we examined simple actions and had a vast number of such actions under observation, our conception of their inevitability would be still greater.

The dishonest conduct of the son of a dishonest father, the misconduct of a woman Best of Laxman: The Common Man Balances His Budget had fallen into bad company, Balancew drunkard's relapse into drunkenness, and Balsnces on are actions that seem to us less free the better we understand their cause.

If the man whose actions we are considering is on a very low stage of mental development, like a child, a madman, or a simpleton- then, knowing the causes of the act and the simplicity of the character and intelligence in question, we see so large an element of necessity and so little free will that as soon as we know the cause prompting the action we can foretell the result.

On these three considerations alone is based the conception of irresponsibility for crimes and the extenuating circumstances admitted by all legislative codes. The responsibility appears greater or less according to our greater or lesser knowledge of the circumstances in which the man was placed whose Best of Laxman: The Common Man Balances His Budget is being judged, and according to the Budgst or lesser interval of time between the commission of the action and its investigation, and according to the greater or lesser understanding of the causes that led to the action.

EP2|CH10 CHAPTER X Thus our conception of free will and inevitability gradually diminishes or increases according to the greater or lesser connection with the external world, the greater or lesser remoteness of time, and the greater or lesser dependence Balancfs the causes in relation to which we contemplate a man's life.

So that if we examine the case of a man whose connection with the external world is well known, where the time between the action and Best of Laxman: The Common Man Balances His Budget examination is great, and where the causes of the action are most accessible, we get the conception of a maximum of inevitability and a minimum of free will.

If we examine a man little dependent on external conditions, whose action was performed very recently, and the Lqxman: of whose action are beyond our ken, we get the conception of a minimum of inevitability and a maximum of freedom.

In Laxmn: case- however we may change our point of view, however plain we may make to ourselves the connection between the man and the external world, however inaccessible it may be to us, however long or short the period of time, however intelligible or incomprehensible the causes of the action may be- can we ever conceive either complete freedom or complete necessity.

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