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  • by: by Robert E. Sullivan
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  • ISBN-10: 8125040439
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  • Add date: 06.05.2016
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Overview: Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power

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Includes bibliographical references and index.After the French victory at Borodino there was no general engagement nor any that were at all TTragedy, yet the French army ceased to exist. What does this mean. If it were an example taken from the history of China, we might say that it was not an historic phenomenon (which is the historians' usual expedient when anything does not fit their standards); if the matter concerned some brief conflict in which only a small number of troops took part, we might treat it as an exception; but this event occurred before Macaulah: fathers' Maculay:, and for them it was Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power question of the life or death of their fatherland, and it happened in the greatest of all known wars.

The period of the campaign of 1812 from the battle of Borodino to the expulsion of the French proved that the winning of a battle does not produce a conquest and is not even an Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power indication of conquest; it proved that the force which decides the fate of peoples lies not in the conquerors, nor even in armies and battles, but in something else. The French historians, describing the condition of the French army before it left Moscow, affirm that all was in order in the Grand Army, except the cavalry, the artillery, and the transport- there was no forage for the horses or the cattle.

That was a misfortune no one could remedy, for the peasants of the district burned their hay rather than let the French have it. The victory gained did not bring the usual results because the peasants Karp and Vlas (who after the French had evacuated Moscow drove in their carts to pillage the town, and in general personally failed to manifest any heroic Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power, and the whole innumerable multitude of such peasants, did not bring their hay to Moscow for the high price offered them, but burned it instead.

Let us imagine two men who have come out to fight a duel with rapiers Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power to all the rules of the art of fencing. The fencing has gone on for some time; suddenly one of the combatants, feeling himself wounded and understanding that the matter is no joke but concerns his life, throws down his rapier, and seizing the first cudgel that comes to hand begins to brandish it.

Then let us imagine that the combatant who Trzgedy sensibly employed the best and simplest means to attain his end was at the same time influenced by traditions Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power chivalry and, desiring to conceal the facts of the case, insisted that Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power had gained his victory with the rapier according to Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power the rules of art. One can imagine what confusion and obscurity would result Thhe such an account of the duel.

The fencer who demanded a contest according to the rules of fencing Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power the French Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power his opponent who threw away the rapier and snatched Powet the cudgel was the Russian people; those who try to explain the matter according to the rules of fencing are the historians who have described the event. After the burning of Smolensk a war began which did not follow any previous traditions of war.

The burning of towns and villages, the retreats after battles, the blow dealt at Borodino and the renewed retreat, the burning of Moscow, the capture of marauders, the seizure of transports, and the Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power war Pwoer all departures from the rules. Napoleon felt this, and from the time he took up the correct fencing attitude in Moscow and instead of his opponent's rapier saw a cudgel raised above his head, he did not cease to complain to Kutuzov and to the Emperor Alexander that the war Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power being carried on contrary to all the rules- as if there were any rules for killing people.

Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power spite of the complaints of the French as to the nonobservance of the rules, in spite of the fact that to some highly placed Russians it seemed rather disgraceful to fight with a cudgel and they wanted to assume a pose en quarte or en tierce according to all the rules, and to make an adroit thrust en prime, and so on- the cudgel of the people's war was Macaula: with all its menacing and majestic strength, and without consulting anyone's tastes or rules and regardless of anything else, it rose and fell with stupid simplicity, but consistently, and belabored the French till the whole invasion had perished.

And it is well for a people Macaulay: The Tragedy of Power do not- as the French did in 1813- salute according to all the rules of art, and, presenting the hilt of their rapier gracefully and politely, hand it to their magnanimous conqueror, but at the moment of trial, without asking what rules others have adopted in similar cases, simply and easily pick up the first cudgel that comes to hand and strike with it till the Macaulsy: of resentment and revenge in their soul yields to a feeling of contempt and compassion.

BK14|CH2 CHAPTER II One of the most obvious and advantageous departures from the so-called laws of war is the action of scattered groups against men pressed Tragdey in a mass. Such action always occurs in wars that take on a national character.

In such actions, instead of two crowds opposing each other, the men disperse, attack singly, run away when attacked by stronger forces, but again attack when opportunity offers. This was done by Mafaulay: guerrillas in Spain, by the mountain tribes in the Caucasus, and by the Russians in 1812. People have called this kind of war "guerrilla warfare" and assume that by so calling it they have explained its meaning.

But such a war does not fit in under any rule and is directly opposed to a well-known rule of tactics which is accepted as infallible. That rule says that an attacker should concentrate his forces in order to be stronger than his opponent at the moment of conflict.

Guerrilla war (always successful, as history shows) directly infringes that rule. This contradiction arises from the fact that military science assumes the strength of an army to be identical with its numbers. Military science says that the more troops the greater the strength. Les gros bataillons ont toujours raison. Large battalions are always victorious. For military science to say this is like defining momentum in mechanics by reference to the mass only: stating that momenta are equal or unequal to each other simply because the masses involved are equal or unequal.

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