Download Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume 2 , The Defining Years, 1933-1938 by Cook, Blanche Wiesen

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  • by: by Cook, Blanche Wiesen
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  • ISBN-10: 0670844985
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  • Publosher: Viking Pr
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  • Add date: 20.08.2016
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Description: Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume 2 , The Defining Years, 1933-1938

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Historians, politicians, feminists, critics, and reviewers everywhere have praised Blanche Wiesen Cooks monumental Eleanor Roosevelt as the definitive portrait of this towering female figure of the twentieth century.

Now in her long-awaited, majestic second volume, Cook takes readers through the tumultuous era of the Great Depression, the New Deal, and the gathering storms of World War II, the years of the Roosevelts greatest challenges and finest achievements. In her remarkably engaging narrative, Cook gives us the complete Eleanor Roosevelt— an adventurous, romantic woman, a devoted wife and mother, and a visionary policymaker and social activist who often took unpopular stands, counter to her husbands policies, especially on issues such as racial justice and womens rights.

A biography of scholarship and daring, it is a book for all readers of American history.God neither formed man with bodily hands nor did he breathe upon him with throat and lips. " St. Augustine then suggests the adoption of the old emanation or evolution theory, shows that "certain very small animals may not have been created on the fifth and sixth days, but may have originated later from putrefying matter.

" argues that, even if this be so, God is still their creator, dwells upon such a potential creation as involved in the actual creation, and speaks Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume 2 animals "whose numbers the after-time unfolded. " In his great treatise on the _Trinity_--the work to which he devoted the best thirty years of his life--we find the full growth of this opinion.

He develops at length the view that in the creation of living beings there was something like a growth--that God is the ultimate author, but works through secondary causes; and finally argues that certain substances are endowed by The Defining Years with the power of producing certain classes of 1933-1938 and animals. [53] This idea The Defining Years a development by secondary causes apart from the original creation was helped in its growth by a theological exigency.

More and more, as the organic world was observed, the vast multitude of Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume 2 animals, winged creatures, and "creeping things" was felt to be a strain upon the sacred narrative. More and more it became difficult to reconcile the dignity of the Almighty with his work in bringing each of these creatures before Adam to be named; or to reconcile the human limitations of Adam with his work in naming "every living creature"; or to reconcile the dimensions of Noah's ark with the space required for preserving all of them, and the food of all sorts necessary for their sustenance, whether they were admitted by twos, as stated in one scriptural account, or by sevens, as stated in the other.

The inadequate size of the ark gave especial trouble. Origen had dealt with it by suggesting that The Defining Years cubit was Six times greater than had been supposed. Bede explained Noah's ability to complete so large a vessel by supposing that he worked upon it during a hundred years; and, as to the provision of food taken into it, he declared that there was no need of a supply for more than one day, since God could throw the animals into a deep sleep or otherwise miraculously make one day's supply sufficient; he also lessened the strain on faith still more by diminishing the number of animals taken into the ark--supporting his view upon Augustine's theory of the later development of insects out of carrion.

Doubtless this theological necessity was among the main reasons which led St. Isidore of Seville, in the seventh century, to incorporate this theory, supported by St.

Basil and St. Augustine, into his great encyclopedic work which gave materials for thought on God and Nature Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume 2 so many generations.

He familiarized the theological world still further with the doctrine of secondary creation, giving such examples of it as that "bees are generated from decomposed veal, beetles from horseflesh, grasshoppers from mules, scorpions from crabs," and, in order to give still stronger force to the idea of such transformations, he dwells on the biblical account of Nebuchadnezzar, which appears to have taken strong hold upon medieval thought in science, and he declares that other human beings had been changed into animals, especially into swine, wolves, and owls.

This doctrine of after-creations went on gathering strength until, in the twelfth century, Peter Lombard, in his theological summary, _The Sentences_, so powerful in moulding the thought of the Church, emphasized the distinction between animals which spring from carrion and those which are created from earth and water; the former he holds to have been created "potentially" the latter "actually. " In the century following, this idea was taken up by St.

Thomas Aquinas and virtually received from him its final form. In the _Summa_, which remains the greatest work of medieval thought, he accepts the idea that certain animals spring from the decaying bodies of plants and animals, and declares that they are produced by the creative word of God either actually or virtually. He develops this view by saying, "Nothing was made by God, after the six days of creation, absolutely new, but it Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume 2 in some sense included in the work of the six days"; and that "even new species, if any appear, The Defining Years existed before in certain native properties, just as animals are produced from putrefaction.

" The distinction thus developed between The Defining Years "causally" or "potentially," and "materially" or "formally," was made much of by commentators afterward. Cornelius a Lapide spread it by saying that certain animals The Defining Years created not "absolutely," but only "derivatively," and this thought was still further developed three centuries later by Augustinus Eugubinus, who tells us that, after the first creative energy had called forth land and water, light was made by the Almighty, the instrument of all future creation, and that the light called The Defining Years into existence.

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