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  • by: by Mccullough, David
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  • ISBN-10: 0671244094
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  • Publisher by: Simon & Schuster
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  • Add date: 03.02.2017
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Description: The Path Between The Seas.

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Describes all the events and personalities involved in the monumental undertaking which precipitated revolution, scandal, economic crisis, and a new Central American republic Bibliography: p. 655-669.Includes index.That Chateaubriand, Madame de Stael, and others spoke certain words to one another only affected their mutual relations but does not account for the submission of millions.

And therefore to explain how from these relations of theirs the submission of millions of The Path Between The Seas. resulted- that is, how component forces equal to one A gave a resultant equal to a thousand times A- the historian is again obliged to fall back on The Path Between The Seas. the force he had denied- and to recognize it as the resultant of the forces, that is, he has to admit an unexplained force acting on the resultant.

And that is just what the universal historians do, and consequently they not only contradict the specialist historians but contradict themselves. Peasants Betewen no clear idea of the cause of rain, say, according to whether they want The Path Between The Seas. or fine weather: "The wind has blown the clouds away," or, "The The Path Between The Seas. has brought up the clouds.

" And in the same way the universal historians sometimes, when it pleases them and fits in with their theory, say that power is the result of events, and sometimes, when they want to prove something else, say that power produces events. A third class of historians- the so-called historians of culture- following the path laid down by the universal historians who sometimes accept writers and ladies as forces producing events- again take that force to be something quite different.

They see it in what is called culture- in mental activity. The historians of culture are quite consistent in regard to their progenitors, the writers of universal histories, for if historical events may be explained by the fact that certain persons treated one another in such and such ways, why not explain them by the fact that such and such people wrote such and such books.

Of the immense number of indications The Path Between The Seas. every vital phenomenon, these historians select the indication of intellectual activity and say that this indication is the cause. But despite Seax. endeavors to prove that the cause of events lies in intellectual activity, only by a great stretch can one admit that there is any connection between intellectual activity and the movement of peoples, and in no case can one admit that intellectual activity controls people's actions, for that view is not confirmed by such facts as the very cruel murders of the French Revolution resulting from the doctrine of the equality of man, or the very cruel wars and executions resulting from the preaching of love.

But even admitting as correct all the cunningly devised arguments with which these histories are filled- admitting that nations are governed by some undefined force called an idea- history's essential question still remains unanswered, and to the former power of monarchs and to the influence of Pxth and other people introduced by the universal historians, another, newer force- Swas. idea- is added, the connection of which with the masses needs explanation.

It is The Path Between The Seas. to understand that Napoleon had power and so events occurred; with some effort one may even conceive that Napoleon together with other influences was the cause of an event; but how a book, Le Contrat social, had the effect of making Frenchmen begin to drown one another cannot be understood without an explanation of the causal nexus of this new force with the event.

Undoubtedly some relation exists between all who live contemporaneously, and so it is possible to find some connection between the intellectual activity of men and their historical movements, just as such a connection may be found between the movements of Patu and commerce, handicraft, gardening, or anything else you please. But why intellectual activity is considered by the historians of culture to be the cause or expression of the whole historical movement is hard to understand.

Only the following considerations can have led the historians to such a conclusion: (1) that history is written by learned men, and so it is natural and agreeable hTe them to think that the activity of their class supplies the basis of the movement of all humanity, just as a similar belief is natural and agreeable to traders, The Path Between The Seas., and soldiers (if they do not express it, that is merely because traders and soldiers do not write history), and (2) that spiritual activity, enlightenment, civilization, culture, ideas, are all indistinct, indefinite conceptions under whose banner it is very easy to use words having a still less Tue meaning, and which can therefore be readily introduced into any theory.

But not to speak of Pat intrinsic quality of histories of this kind (which may possibly even be of use to someone for something) the histories of culture, to which all general histories tend more and more to approximate, are significant from the fact that after seriously and minutely examining various religious, philosophic, and political doctrines as causes of events, as soon as they have to describe an actual historic event such as the campaign of 1812 for instance, they involuntarily describe it as The Path Between The Seas. from an exercise of power- and say plainly that that was the result of Napoleon's will.

Speaking so, the historians of culture involuntarily contradict themselves, and show that the new force they have devised does not account for what happens in history, and that history can only be explained by introducing a power which they apparently do not recognize.

EP2|CH3 CHAPTER III A locomotive is moving. Someone The Path Between The Seas. "What moves it?" A peasant Sea.s the devil moves it. Another man says the locomotive moves because its wheels go round. A third asserts that the cause of its movement lies in the smoke which the wind carries away. The peasant is irrefutable. He The Path Between The Seas. devised a complete explanation. To refute him someone would have to prove to him that there is no devil, or another peasant would The Path Between The Seas. to explain to him that it is not the devil but a German, who moves the locomotive.

Only then, as a result of the contradiction, will they see that they are both wrong. But the Sea.s who says that the movement of the wheels is the cause refutes himself, for having once begun to analyze he ought to go on and explain further why the wheels go round; and till he has reached the ultimate cause of the movement of the locomotive in the pressure Seae. steam in the boiler, he has no right to stop in his search for the cause. The man who explains the movement of the locomotive by the smoke that is carried back has noticed Tue the wheels do not supply an explanation and Betwee taken the first sign that occurs to him and in his turn has offered that as an explanation.

The only conception that can explain the movement of the locomotive is that of a force commensurate with the movement observed. The only conception that can explain the movement of the peoples is that of some force commensurate with the whole movement of the peoples.

Yet to supply this conception various historians take forces of different kinds, all of which are incommensurate with the movement observed. Some see it as a force directly inherent in heroes, as the peasant sees the devil in the locomotive; others as a force resulting from several other forces, like the movement of the wheels; others again as an intellectual influence, like the smoke that is blown away.

So long as histories are written of separate individuals, whether Caesars, Alexanders, The Path Between The Seas., or Voltaires, and not the histories of all, absolutely all those who take part in an event, it is quite impossible to describe the movement of humanity without the conception of a force compelling men to direct their activity toward a certain end. And the only such conception known to historians is that of power.

This conception is the one handle by means of which the material of history, as at present The Path Between The Seas., can be dealt with, and anyone who breaks that handle off, as Buckle did, without finding some other method of treating historical material, merely deprives himself of the one possible way of dealing with it. The necessity of the conception of power as an explanation of historical events is best demonstrated by the universal Sea.

and historians of culture The Path Between The Seas., for they professedly reject that conception but inevitably have recourse to it at every step. In dealing with humanity's inquiry, the science of history up to now is like money in circulation- paper money and coin. The biographies and special national histories are like paper money. They can be used and can circulate and fulfill their purpose without harm to anyone and even advantageously, as long as no one asks The Path Between The Seas. is the security behind them.

You need only forget to ask how the will of heroes produces events, and such histories as Thiers' will be interesting and instructive and may perhaps even possess a tinge of Tge.

But just as doubts of the real value of paper money arise either because, being easy to make, too much of it Tbe made or because people try to exchange it for gold, so also doubts concerning the real value of such histories arise either because too many of them are written or because in his simplicity of heart someone The Path Between The Seas. by what force did Napoleon do this?- that is, wants to exchange the current paper money for the real gold of actual comprehension.

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