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  • by: by Cavalieri, Marco/ Baldini, Giacomo
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  • ISBN-10: 2503549144
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  • Publisher by: Brepols Pub
  • Add by: Moderatod
  • Add date: 02.08.2016
  • Time add:17:46

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So that examining the relation in time of the commands to the events, we find that a command can never be the cause of the event, but that a certain definite dependence exists between the two. To understand in what this dependence consists it is necessary to reinstate another omitted condition of every command proceeding not from the Deity but Oltre Il Riflesco a man, which is, that Oltre Il Riflesco man who gives the command himself takes part in This relation of the commander to those he commands is just what is called power.

This relation consists in the following: For common action people always unite in certain combinations, in which regardless of the difference of the aims set for the common action, the relation between Oltre Il Riflesco taking part in it is always the same. Men uniting in Oltre Il Riflesco combinations always assume such relations toward one another that the larger number take a more direct share, and the smaller number a less direct share, in the collective action for which they have combined.

Of all the combinations in which men unite for collective action one of the Oltre Il Riflesco striking and definite examples is an army.

Every army is composed of lower grades of the service- the rank and file- of whom there are always the greatest number; of the next higher military rank- corporals and noncommissioned officers of whom there are fewer, and of still-higher officers of whom Oltre Il Riflesco are still fewer, and so on to the highest military command which is concentrated in one person.

A military organization may be quite correctly compared to a cone, of which the base with the largest diameter consists of the rank and file; the next higher and smaller section of the cone consists of the next higher grades of the army, and so on to the apex, the point of which will represent the commander in chief. The soldiers, of whom there are the most, form the lower section of the cone and its base. The soldier himself does the stabbing, hacking, burning, and pillaging, and always receives orders for these actions from men above him; he himself never gives an order.

The noncommissioned officers (of whom there are fewer) perform the action itself less frequently than the soldiers, but they Oltre Il Riflesco give commands. An officer still less often acts directly Oltre Il Riflesco, but commands still more frequently. A general does nothing but command the Oltre Il Riflesco, indicates the objective, and hardly ever uses a weapon himself.

The commander in chief never takes direct part Oltre Il Riflesco the action itself, but only gives general orders concerning the movement of the mass of the troops. A similar relation of people to one another is seen in every combination of men for common activity- in agriculture, trade, and every administration.

And so without particularly analyzing all the contiguous sections of a cone and of the ranks of an army, or the ranks and positions in any administrative or public business whatever from the lowest to the highest, we see a law by which men, to take associated action, combine in such relations that the more directly they participate in performing the action the less they can command and the more numerous they are, while the less their direct participation in the action itself, the more they command and the fewer of them there are; rising in this way from the lowest ranks to the man at the top, who takes the least direct share in the action and directs his activity chiefly to commanding.

This relation of the men who command Oltre Il Riflesco those they command is what constitutes the essence of the conception called power. Having restored the condition of time under which all events occur, find that a command is executed only when it is related to a corresponding series of events.

Restoring the essential condition of relation between those who command and those who execute, we find that by the very nature of the case those who command take the smallest part in the action itself and that their activity is exclusively directed to commanding.

EP2|CH7 CHAPTER VII When an event is taking place people express their opinions and wishes about it, and as the event results from the collective activity of many people, some one of the opinions or wishes expressed is sure to be fulfilled if but approximately. When one of the opinions expressed is fulfilled, that opinion gets connected with the event as a command preceding it. Men are hauling a log. Each of them expresses his opinion as to how and where to haul it.

They haul the log away, and it happens that this is done as one of them said. He ordered it. There we have command and power in their primary form. The man who worked most with his hands could not think so much about what he was doing, or reflect on or command what would result from the common activity; while the man who commanded more would evidently work less with his hands on account of his greater verbal activity.

When some larger concourse of men direct their activity Oltre Il Riflesco a common aim there is a yet sharper division of those who, because their activity is given to directing and commanding, take less less part in the direct work. When a man works alone he always has a certain set of reflections which as it seems to him directed his past activity, justify his present activity, and guide him in planning his future actions.

Just the same is done by a concourse of people, allowing those who do not take a direct part in the activity to devise considerations, justifications, and surmises concerning their collective activity. For reasons known or unknown to us the French began to drown and kill one another. And corresponding to the event its justification appears in people's belief that this was necessary for the welfare of France, for liberty, and for equality.

People ceased to kill one Oltre Il Riflesco, and this event Oltre Il Riflesco accompanied by its justification in the necessity for a centralization of power, resistance to Europe, and so on. Men went from the west to the east killing their fellow men, Oltre Il Riflesco the event was accompanied by phrases about the glory of France, the baseness of England, and Oltre Il Riflesco on.

History shows us that these justifications of the events have no common sense and are all contradictory, as in the case of killing a man as the result of recognizing his rights, Oltre Il Riflesco the killing of millions in Russia for the humiliation of England. But these justifications have Oltre Il Riflesco very necessary significance in their own day.

These justifications release those who Oltre Il Riflesco the events from moral responsibility. These temporary aims are like the broom fixed in front of a locomotive to clear the snow from the rails in front: they clear men's moral responsibilities from their path.

Without such justification there would be no reply to the simplest question that presents itself when examining each historical event. How is it that millions of men commit collective crimes- make war, commit murder, and so on.

With the present complex forms of political and social life in Europe can any event that is not prescribed, decreed, or ordered by monarchs, ministers, parliaments, or newspapers be imagined.

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